In addition to the ranks and Arrow of Light award, scouts can earn several other awards in recognition of academic, service, outdoor, and other achievements.
Some of the more common awards include: (name, brief description or goal, short summary of requirements)
Recruiter - Help the pack grow by recruiting a friend to join the pack
World Conservation Award - Can be earned by Wolves, Bears, and Webelos.
Nova Awards - Four awards, each covering one component of STEM: Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics
Outdoor Activity - Complete a designated outdoor requirement and a number (varying by rank) of outdoor activities
Summertime Activity - Participate in one official scouting activity in each of June, July, and August
Religious Emblem - Earn the religious emblem or medal corresponding to your faith
Shooting Sports - Complete a short shooting instruction and history program at an official BSA day or overnight camp (available for Archery, BBs, and Slingshot)
Some of these awards are worn permanently on the scout uniform (world conservation, outdoor activity, recruiter), some, such as summertime activity, are pins worn on the pocket flap, and others
are temporary patches which hang from a pocket. The religious emblem square knot, along with the arrow of light knot, are the only awards earned by cub scouts which may be worn on Boy Scout and
adult leader uniforms.
Still other patches can be worn on a “brag vest”, and recognize participation in various scouting events such as Pinewood, Scouting for Food, parades, and other fun activities.
An overview of some of the awards available can be found here.